Gestational diabetes is one of the common clinical complications. Gestational diabetes includes pregnancy with diabetes and gestational diabetes. Pregnancy with diabetes refers to women who have had diabetes before pregnancy (type 1 diabetes or type 2 diabetes); gestational diabetes refers to diabetes and impaired glucose tolerance that only appeared and discovered during pregnancy.
Gestational diabetes symptoms
The most obvious gestational diabetes symptoms are “three more and one less”, that is, eating more, drinking more, and urinating more, but weight loss is accompanied by vomiting.
Be careful not to confuse it with a general pregnancy reaction. Vomiting in pregnancy with diabetes can become hyperemesis, that is, severe nausea, aggravation of vomiting, and even dehydration and electrolyte disturbance; another common symptom is fatigue and weakness, which is due to eating Glucose can’t be fully utilized and the catabolism increases rapidly, so physical strength cannot be supplemented.
Although I eat a lot of nutrient-rich foods, due to lack of insulin in the body, the glucose in the food is not fully utilized and is excreted, and the heat energy is supplied by fat, and the conversion of protein into glucose is also greatly accelerated, so carbohydrate and protein in the body And fat are consumed in large quantities, resulting in poor physical fitness and light weight. Due to the acceleration of the abnormal metabolism of glucose, the content of glucose in the blood and urine increases. Diabetes in early pregnancy is prone to fungal infection. Symptoms of diabetes in the second trimester can be reduced. Childbirth, induction of labor, and cesarean section in the third trimester can also easily lead to bacterial infections, which further aggravate the symptoms of diabetes.
Some patients are asymptomatic. Some patients have a high renal excretion threshold, even if the blood glucose concentration is already high, no glucose is excreted in the urine. Such patients are more dangerous because they cover up their symptoms. Some patients lack diabetes knowledge and mistakenly believe that eating and drinking are normal physical needs after pregnancy. In some patients, the symptoms of diabetes complications are masked by other complications (such as high blood pressure, various infections, etc.).
What kind of pregnant women are prone to gestational diabetes
1. Those who are overweight. If the body mass index is above 24 before pregnancy (body mass index = weight kilograms / height cm square), you should be vigilant.
2. Those over 30 years old, especially pregnant women over 35 years old.
3. When there are diabetic patients in the family, especially first-degree relatives (including parents and siblings) with diabetic patients, the risk of gestational diabetes increases significantly.
4. Routine urine examinations during pregnancy often show positive fasting urine glucose.
5. Suffering from vulvovaginal candidiasis (or fungal vaginitis) repeatedly during pregnancy.
6. There have been unexplained repeated spontaneous abortions, intrauterine deaths, and fetal malformations during previous pregnancy.
7. Has given birth to a fetus weighing more than 4 kg.
8. People who have ever suffered from gestational diabetes.
9. During this pregnancy, it was found that the fetus was larger than the actual gestational age or had excessive amniotic fluid.
If the pregnant woman has the above conditions, it does not mean that gestational diabetes will definitely occur in this pregnancy, but it is just a reminder that she has high-risk factors and should be screened in time to avoid delay in treatment.