The so-called oral hypoglycemic agents refer to drugs that have a hypoglycemic effect after oral administration, mainly Western medicine.
What are the oral hypoglycemic agents
Oral hypoglycemic agents are divided into five categories. Among them, sulfonylureas and benzoic acid derivatives are mainly oral hypoglycemic agents that solve the problem of insulin deficiency. Biguanides, glucosidase inhibitors, and thiazolidinediones are mainly to reduce insulin resistance and reduce sugar content. Absorbed drugs.
How to choose oral hypoglycemic agents
The main function of sulfonylurea hypoglycemic agents is to stimulate insulin secretion, and the hypoglycemic effect is moderate to strong.
Although benzoic acid derivative hypoglycemic agents also have the effect of stimulating insulin, their structure and action site are different from those of sulfonylureas. It is also suitable for those who are not obese, have the potential to secrete insulin but are not effective against sulfonylureas.
The main effect of biguanide hypoglycemic agents is to reduce appetite and nourish the absorption of sugars. They are more suitable for obese people. The hypoglycemic effect is also moderate.
Glucosidase inhibitors mainly inhibit the decomposition of sugars, delay the absorption of glucose and reduce postprandial blood sugar.
Thiazolidinedione is the latest class of oral hypoglycemic agents. It does not stimulate the secretion of insulin, but can enhance insulin sensitivity from many angles. It is also called an “insulin sensitizer”.
The current five types of oral hypoglycemic agents, although their mechanism and characteristics are different, can be used in combination to enhance the hypoglycemic effect.
How to properly take hypoglycemic agents by mouth
Oral hypoglycemic agents should also pay attention to the following points: First, it is only applicable to people with type 2 diabetes; second, the same type of hypoglycemic agents cannot be used in combination; third, sulfonylureas and sulfa drugs have cross-allergic reactions, so those who are allergic to sulfa drugs should use sulfonylurea hypoglycemic agents with caution; fourth, drug treatment must be combined with diet control and exercise.