What is pterygium, and what are the causes and treatments

What is pterygium, and what are the causes and treatments
What is pterygium, and what are the causes and treatments

What is pterygium?
        Pterygium, commonly known as "the flesh o fish", is a common and frequently-occurring disease in ophthalmology. It is generally believed that pterygium is a chronic inflammatory disease, which can damage the cornea and affect vision in severe cases. And then let's the causes and treatment of pterygium.
1. Causes of pterygium:
1). Environmental factors:
        External irritation such as long-term excessive irritation of the eyes by sand, smoke, dust, heat, sunlight, pollen, etc., is particularly closely related to the damage of ultraviolet rays, especially fishermen, farmers, seamen, sand and gravel workers and other long-term outdoor workers.
2). Own factors:
        Genetics, nutritional deficiencies, insufficient tear secretion, allergic reactions and anatomical factors. Some people think that due to abnormal tear film and insufficient tear secretion, local dryness of the cornea and conjunctiva causes local tissue hyperplasia. It is also believed that the growth and degeneration of elastic fibers of the conjunctival tissue is abnormal and the elastic fibers are degeneration.
        Pterygium can cause jealous, tearing, foreign body sensation, and affect appearance and appearance. For example: When you are sleep deprived, your eyes will be redder the next day. Eating something that gets irritated can also easily cause jealousy and uncomfortable. There are also some effects on vision. For example, astigmatism can be caused when the pterygium progresses to the center of the cornea. If the pupil is covered, vision will be seriously affected. The hypertrophic contracture of the pterygium can restrict eye movement. Once the degree of pterygium infiltration deepens and reaches the deep stromal layer, scars are formed, and it is difficult to restore the best vision even after pterygium surgery.
2. Treatments of pterygium
1). Antibiotics
        Use antibiotic eye drops to control inflammation of the conjunctiva and reduce congestion. Corticosteroid eye drops can be added when congestion is heavy. To reduce external irritation, you can wear appropriate color changing glasses.
2). Other
        Small, still pterygium does not require treatment. If the pterygium is progressive or is close to the pupil area, which affects vision or restricts eyeball rotation, surgical resection is feasible. For patients who are unwilling to undergo surgery, 0.3ml of bleomycin solution of 2000-3000U/ml can be injected into the neck and body of the pterygium under topical anesthesia, once a week, 3-6 times as 1 Course of treatment. In order to reduce the local reaction, 0.3ml of prednisolone and tetracycline cortisone ointment can be injected into the contralateral bulbar conjunctiva.
3). Cryotherapy
        Use a 40.C frozen head to touch the head and neck of the pterygium to destroy the new blood vessels and shrink them. Used for smaller and thinner pterygium.
4). Surgical treatment
        (1)Simple pterygium resection is suitable for those who have more pterygium invading the cornea, and the progressive pterygium or close to the pupil edge threatens the visual function of the affected eye, or it affects the incision of cataract and keratoplasty or may stimulate the pterygium after the operation Those who develop pterygium, or those whose pterygium hinders the appearance of the patient. This surgical method is also relatively simple to operate, and the operation time is relatively short, but it is easy to relapse after surgery.
        (2)Pterygium resection and pedicled conjunctival flap transplantation are also suitable for those with hypertrophic, hyperemic and fast-growing pterygium. Because the conjunctiva is elastic and has good compliance, this feature can be used to separate the bulbar conjunctiva adjacent to the pterygium resection area, and after appropriate loosening and cutting, the transplantation can be carried out to repair the exposed scleral area. This method does not cause the conjunctival flap to be reversed, and the blood supply is good, and the transplanted conjunctiva grows and heals faster. The disadvantage is that there may be a certain tension when the conjunctiva is stretched and displaced, so it should be well aligned when suturing the wound to prevent the conjunctival wound from splitting.
        (3)Pterygium resection combined with free conjunctival flap transplantation is suitable for those with larger pterygium, hyperemia and hypertrophy, and faster growth, or those with more conjunctival loss during pterygium resection. This surgical method is relatively complicated to operate and has certain difficulties, and the conjunctival flap used for transplantation is particularly to prevent the front and back inversion, but the surgical effect is better, and the postoperative recurrence rate is relatively low.
3. Prevention is better than cure
        To prevent pterygium, smoke, sand and sun should be avoided as much as possible, and noon sun should be avoided as much as possible. If it is unavoidable, a wide-brimmed hat and appropriate sunglasses should be worn. At the same time, pay attention to the eyes. Hygiene, develop good eye habits. When suffering from trachoma or other types of conjunctivitis, it should be treated promptly. If the "pterygium" causes eye discomfort, recurrent inflammation, decreased vision or affects the appearance, surgical treatment is required. In addition, remember to go to a specialist hospital for regular review to prevent the continuous growth of pterygium.
        The above is the introduction of the etiology and treatment plan of pterygium. Prevention of eye diseases is better than treatment. It is very important to develop good eye habits. If your eyes are unwell, you should go to the hospital for examination and treatment in time, and don't delay your condition.


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