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Why the prevalence of depression in women is high?

Why the prevalence of depression in women is high?
Why the prevalence of depression in women is high?

        Worldwide, the lifetime prevalence of depression in women is twice that of men. Why are women prone to depression? Could it be caused by women's sentimentality? Or is it because women are psychologically fragile?
        Are these real?
        An analytical study in 2003 showed that the lifetime prevalence of depression in women was 2.1 times that of men, and the time-frame prevalence rate was 1.7 times that of men. Between adolescence and 18 years of age, depression in girls grew rapidly, about Boy's twice. From early adulthood to old age, more women suffer from depression than men. At present, there are about 30 million people with confirmed depression in my country, and the prevalence of adult women is higher than that of men, with a ratio of 2 to 1. However, it is strange that: 1. The proportion of men who succeeded in suicide is significantly higher than that of women; 2. The increase in mortality caused by depression is more significant among men than women.
        Why? Because women see more doctors and men see fewer doctors, perhaps it is because men are more reluctant to face the reality of their depression, and women are more likely to express their emotions to relatives and friends, ask for help, and take the initiative to see doctors. In clinical experience, there are indeed more women than men. Moreover, there are indeed many male friends who would rather "bleed and sweat without tears" at home than asking for help. So, is it that women tend to ask for help, and men are ashamed to ask for help, leading to the illusion that women suffer from more depression?
        We may wish to analyze from the following aspects, what causes more depression in women.
1. What is the difference between biological factors?
        Genetic predisposition
        The heritability of depression is about 30-40%, and women seem to have a higher genetic risk than men. Research suggests that women are more likely to suffer from internalization disorders, including depression, under stressful life events, while men are more likely to suffer from externalization disorders, such as addictive behaviors (smoking, alcohol, drugs, etc.).
        Hormonal change factors
        During the critical period of hormonal changes, including early to middle adolescence, and menopause, female groups have a significant increase in the risk of depression. Especially during menstruation, pregnancy, childbirth, lactation, menopause, menopause and other stages, women's hormone levels change significantly. Hormones change frequently during the premenstrual period, and some women are very sensitive to it, which causes approximately 2-10% of women to suffer from premenstrual syndrome. It may be the premenstrual syndrome itself, or the emotional changes brought about by the premenstrual syndrome, which may eventually cause depression. Approximately 10-15% of women have depressive symptoms in the first six months after childbirth, and it is even higher during pregnancy. This is more common among single mothers, mothers who have children by accident, and mothers with financial difficulties. Some women are also depressed because they do not bring children or worry about their children's health.
        Stress response factors
        Women’s physiological response to psychosocial stress is relatively small. From an evolutionary point of view, this phenomenon is to protect the fetus from maternal stress; however, the neuroendocrine system (HPA axis) of stress response is slow and unresponsive. A higher risk of depression is associated.
        Brain structure factors
        A large number of research results show that there are basic gender differences in the structure of the human brain. The male brain is more likely to make connections between perception and coordinated actions, while the female brain is better at transferring information between analysis and intuitive processing modes.
        According to a study, there are differences in brain capacity and structure between men and women. Men’s brains are on average 10% larger and 11% heavier than women’s brains. They are mainly manifested in several specific areas, including language systems and emotional control. The limbic system and the structural differences of the limbic system are related to mental illnesses such as autism, schizophrenia and depression.
2. What is the difference between men and women in psychological factors?
        Suppress impulse
        Our general common sense thinks that girls are a few years older than boys, and it is true. From early childhood, girls’ ability to regulate attention and suppress impulse is stronger than boys, while men are relatively more active and impulsive, and gain greater pleasure from high-intensity stimuli; lack of positive emotions and a lower degree of extroversion are associated with an increased risk of depression Highly relevant.
        Neuroticism
        Studies from the perspective of personality have shown that from adolescence, women's neuroticism scores are significantly higher than that of men's, and continue for life, and neuroticism is a high-risk personality factor for depression. In addition, women have higher levels of personality traits such as compassion, pro-social, and agreeableness than men, and are more likely to feel ashamed and dissatisfied with the body, and respond by thinking and ruminating (such as passively repetitively experiencing painful memories). Is significant.
        Anxiety level
        In addition, the proportion of women suffering from anxiety disorders is also relatively high. Anxiety disorders, especially those beginning in childhood and adolescence, tend to prolong into a chronic course and increase the risk of depression in the future.
3. What are the differences in social environmental factors?
        Stressor
        In life, we will find that boys and girls behave differently in their adolescence. Girls have more interpersonal stressors and are significantly more susceptible to these stresses than boys. The occurrence of stress can predict future depression, especially It is the girl who suffered sexual assault and harassment in her early years.
        The risk of sexual abuse
        Compared to boys, girls are at higher risk of exposure to childhood sexual abuse. Statistics from the World Health Organization show that in 2002, 150 million girls and 73 million boys (both under the age of 18) experienced forced sex and other forms of sexual violence. Generally speaking, victims of childhood sexual abuse are more prone to internalizing and externalizing symptoms, including depression. In addition, evidence shows that women are more susceptible to early negative events than men.
        Economic situation
        A fixed income is a protective factor for depression. After entering adulthood, a full-time job with a fixed income can reduce the risk of anxiety and depression, while the work of a full-time wife raising children at home has no protective effect. Women often need to take on more family responsibilities, so the protection effect they get is limited. In addition, the predictive effect of lack of social support on depression appears to be stronger in women than in men.
        Risk of violence
        In addition, violence against women is a serious problem, including mental abuse, physical/sexual abuse, rape, sexual abduction, etc. In some areas, forced marriages, childbirth, and birth control still exist. These stressful events may increase the risk of depression in women.
        WHO estimates that 30% of women worldwide are victims of physical and sexual violence by their spouses, and their risk is much higher than that of men, while women victims of violence are twice as likely to suffer from depression and substance-related disorders as male controls. In addition, violence from a spouse is also closely related to perinatal depression. Especially in some backward rural areas, where boys are preferred over girls, women will be discriminated against or abused when they give birth to a baby girl, which leads to increased female depression.
        Marital status
        The divorce factor is also an important factor leading to female depression. Worldwide, the divorce rate seems to be increasing as the level of economic development increases. From the perspective of marriage alone, in unhappy families, women suffer more than three times the stress than men, and single mothers are more likely to suffer from depression than single fathers. Women are also more sensitive than men, and they are more prone to fatigue, insomnia, sadness and despair, which may be the cause of depression.
        Based on the analysis of the above factors, there are indeed many biological psychological and social factors in the difference in the incidence of depression between men and women. This society cannot be separated from the tenderness and beauty of women, and the family cannot be separated from the care and companionship of mothers and wives. Feminine women carry so many things. Pressure conveys the matrilineal culture of mankind and deserves the respect and protection of every man. Wish women all over the world stay away from depression and embrace happiness.

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